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Dr. Charles Abramson

Dr. Jason Belden

Dr. Rob Burnap

Dr. Josh Butcher

Dr. Guangping Chen

Dr. Randall Davis

Dr. Andy Dzialowski

Dr. Heather Fahlenkamp

Dr. Babu Fathepure

Dr. Martin Furr

Dr. John E. Gustafson

Dr. Steve Hartson

Dr. Myron Hinsdale

Dr. Peter Hoyt

Dr. Janeen Salak-JohnsonDr. Gerwald Koehler

Dr. Jing Liu

Dr. Lin Liu

Dr. Edralin Lucas

Dr. Jerry R. Malayer

Dr. Lara Maxwell

Dr.  Karen McBee

Dr. Scott McMurry

Dr. Matteo Minghetti

Dr. Kenneth J. Olivier Jr,

Dr. Carey Pope

Dr. Josh Ramsey

Dr. Ashish Ranjan

Dr. Jerry Ritchey

Dr. Brenda Smith

Dr. Loren M. Smith

Dr. Sundar V. Madihally

Dr. Tamara L. Mix

Dr. Jarrad Wagner

Dr. David R Wallace

 

 

Dr. Charles Abramson

Regents Professor   

Lawrence L. Boger Professor of International Studies

Department of Psychology

401 N. Psychology

Stillwater, OK 74078-3064

405-744-7492


Research Interests:

I am a comparative psychologist with a wide range of research interests including behavioral toxicology, the development of mathematical models of learning that can be applied to toxicological data, development of automated training techniques, explorations in the molecular mechanisms of learning, development of a social insect model of alcoholism, and the study of the effect of agrochemicals on honey bee learning.


 

Dr. Jason Belden

Professor and Department Head
Department of Integrative Biology

Co-Director, Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program

501 Life Sciences West

Oklahoma State University 

Stillwater, OK 74078-3064

405-744-1718

 

Research Interests:

Our laboratory group is interested in exploring the effects of chemical contaminants on biota. We focus on both the environmental fate and effects of contaminants with a strong emphasis on measuring exposure.


 

Dr. Rob Burnap

Vaughn O. Vennerberg Chair of

Bioinformatics and Molecular Genetics

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics

230D, Henry Bellmon Research Center

Oklahoma State University 

Stillwater, OK 74078

405-744-7445

 

Research Interests:

Our research examines basic structure-function aspects of the oxygenic photosynthetic mechanism using cyanobacteria as experimental models.  We have projects looking into the catalytic capabilities of photosynthetic enzymes and projects examining metabolic pathways and how individual metabolites regulate gene expression in ways that alter the metabolic pathways. These projects utilize molecular genetic and bioinformatic tools to re-configure the DNA sequences specifying the structures in question and  biochemical and biophysical analyses are then used to evaluate their function.


Dr. Josh Butcher

Associate Professor

Physiological Sciences

College of Veterinary Medicine

Stillwater, OK 74078
405-744-6751

 

Research Interests: 

Dr. Butcher is a cardiovascular physiologist by training and his lab is interested in understanding the dynamic interplay between obesity, aging, and skeletal muscle health. His ongoing research seeks to understand the long-term consequences of obesity (diabetes, vascular dysfunction, renal injury, hypertension, skeletal muscle dysfunction, oxidant stress) in the context of aging and how skeletal muscle can serve as a buffer against obesity-derived cardiometabolic dysfunction. Simply put, the goal is to make novel advances in understanding the role that skeletal muscle plays in healthy aging. To interrogate these relationships, my lab uses rodent models and multiple interventions, including diet, novel pharmaceuticals and genetic manipulation. Pursuant to this program, my interests lie in toxins that accumulate with age and/or are exacerbated with obesity. Our laboratory is currently equipped to measure vascular health (via characterization of endothelial and smooth muscle reactivity using pressure myography), in vivo blood pressure regulation in rodents, manipulate glucose homeostasis (Type 2 and Type 1 diabetes), and assess in vivo skeletal muscle function.


 

Dr. Guangping Chen

Associate Professor

Physiological Sciences

Venture I OSU Laboratory,

Oklahoma Technology & Research Park

1110 S. Innovation Way

Stillwater, OK 74074

405-744-2349

 

Research Interests:

Dr. Guangping Chen’s research laboratory investigates phase I and phase III drug metabolizing enzymes, specifically focusing on sulfotransferases. Research areas include toxicology, pharmacology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. We are interested in the metabolism of hormones and important clinical drugs by human sulfotransferases; protein structure and function relationships; and the unique catalytic mechanisms of sulfotransferases. We are also investigating gene regulation mechanisms of drug metabolizing enzymes by hormones, cancer drugs, and bioactive food components; the relationships between various stressors and drug metabolizing enzyme functions during physical stress, chemical stress, oxidative stress, and neurological stress; the potential roles of sulfation in hormone-sensitive cancers and potential flavonoids which can be developed into novel breast cancer drugs.


 

Dr. Randall Davis

Associate Professor of Pharmacology
Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences
Associate Dean, Biomedical Sciences
Neuroinflammation Research Laboratory

1111 West 17th Street
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74107
918-561-8408

 

Research Interests:

My research interests have always centered on neuroinflammation. Thus, our efforts are focused on understanding the neuroinflammatory events associated with CNS disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, HIV-dementia and mood/behavior disorders. We are particularly interested in inflammatory signaling in astrocytes and microglia and modulation of these signaling events by drugs of abuse and other pharmacologic agents. In our most recent investigations, we discovered that funaltrexamine βFNA), a selective, mu-opioid receptor MORR) antagonist, has anti-inflammatory actions in vitro and in vivo. However, these anti-inflammatory actions are not related to classically defined actions through MORR. Our current efforts are therefore directed at identifying the mechanism of action for these anti-inflammatory effects of βFNA in order to open a new line of inquiry into the potential of βFNA (or modified forms of this compound) as an inhibitor of neuroinflammation to be included in combination drug treatment of neurologic diseases, in particular major depressive disorders.


 

Dr. Andy Dzialowski

Associate Professor

Department of Integrative Biology

Oklahoma State University 

Stillwater, OK 74078

405-744-1716

 

Research Interests:

Research in our lab explores how biotic interactions, resource availability, and anthropogenic disturbances interact to influence the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. My students and I combine laboratory, observational, and experimental studies to address several major themes including the ecology of invasive species, metacommunity dynamics, zooplankton community structure, reservoir management, and wetland ecology. 


 

Dr. Heather Fahlenkamp

Professor and Anadarko Petroleum Chair in Chemical Engineering

Graduate Program Director

Oklahoma State University 

Stillwater, OK 74078

405-744-5280

 

Research Interests:

Dr. Fahlenkamp’s research focus is to create three-dimensional human tissue-engineered models to recapitulate the human immune response in order to study disease states associated with inflammation. One example is a human tissue-engineered lung model to study the immune response to respiratory pathogens, such as influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses.  She also uses such models to study the immune response to drug delivery systems, including nanoparticles and biomembranes.


 

Dr. Babu Fathepure

Associate Professor

Microbiology and Molecular Genetics

Oklahoma State University 

Stillwater, OK 74078

405-744-7764

 

Research Interests:

Hydrocarbon Degradation in Extreme Environment: We study ecology, physiology, and genomics of bacteria and archaea that degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments. Lignocellulose Degradation for Biofuel: Lignin, one of the major components of lignocellulosic biomass presents both chemical and physical barriers for effective bioconversion of plant biomass into bioethanol.  Microbial Degradation of Concrete: We are exploring microbe-induced corrosion of concrete infrastructures such as bridges.            


Dr. Martin Furr

Professor and Department Head

Physiological Sciences

264 McElroy Hall

Stillwater, OK 74048

405-744-6751

 

Research Interests: 

Dr. Furr's research interests include equine neonatal medicine and critical care, equine neurology (particularly equine protozoal myeloencephalitis), equine immunology, and faculty development and medical education.


 

Dr. John E. Gustafson

Professor and Department Head

OSU Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

246D NRC

405-744- 6189

 

Research Interests:

The major research focus throughout my career has focused primarily on antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureusS. aureus is the leading cause of nosocomial infections, bacteremias and surgical wound infections. My primary research plan is to continue the identification of genes that Staphylococcus aureus requires to express intrinsic and clinically-relevant resistance to various antimicrobials. My research interests involve the use of genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, transcriptomics, RTqPCR, metabolomics, gene knockout protocols and strain engineering. We also utilize protein biochemistry techniques and numerous microbial physiology protocols.


Dr. Steve Hartson 

Director

Proteomics & Mass Spectroscopy Core Facility 

110 FAHBRC 

Oklahoma State University 

405-744-6191

 

Research Interests:

Dr. Hartson's research group studies proteotoxicity, "that is, any impairment of cellular function caused by protein misfolding. We are currently focused on small molecules that inhibit the cellular protein heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), because their selective tumoricidal activities hold promise in addressing the half-million cancer deaths that occur in this country each year.  We are also exploring other proteotoxic phenomena.  Additionally, my team operates shared multi-user instrumentation resources for mass spectrometry, proteomics, and molecular biology.


Dr. Myron Hinsdale

Associate Professor 

Physical Sciences

264 McElroy Hall

Stillwater, OK 74078

405-744-8107

 

Research Interests:

Our laboratory and the Animal Model Core has experience and background to successfully uncover and phenotype significant aspects of metabolic and respiratory disease. We have a broad background in pathology, animal models, and genetics. Our own research program is interested in the influences of extracellular matrix on organ homeostasis especially in tissue post-injury repair. We are concentrating on the role extracellular matrix ECM) has under disease conditions and specifically in regards to influences of ECM proteins on cell signaling, vascular integrity, inflammatory cell interaction, cilia function, and cellular proliferation and specifically stem cells. We are particularly interested in the role that ECM proteoglycans have in the integrity of the glomerular basement membrane, the integrity of the alveolar-endothelial basement membrane in pulmonary diseases, blood brain barrier, and in the control of the adipocyte stem cell niche in lipodystrophy and glucose handling in the liver both of which have impact on diabetes. We see that at the basis of our studies there is a response to injury that the ECM is important in controlling or sustaining. Toxic insult and recovery of tissue has impact on the ECM. I am the director of the Oklahoma State University Cell Culture Hypoxia Core and the Animal Models Core funded by our NIH COBRE. In regards to other epithelial cell and ECM interactions, we are studying the role of ECM proteoglycans, macrophages and epithelial proliferation in cyst development in human polycystic kidney disease. The glomerular basement membrane shares structural similarities with that of the alveolus. These studies make extensive use of transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as confocal microscopy for the analyses of basement membrane changes. For these studies, we have developed several novel mouse models. As a postdoctoral fellow at the University of North Carolina in the laboratories of Nobel Laureate Oliver Smithies and Nobuyo Maeda, I obtained extensive experience in generating and characterizing mouse models of human disease and mouse genetics. Our novel mouse models of reduced ECM proteoglycan are aiding our investigations into the role that ECM proteoglycans have on cilia in tissue homeostasis and disease. Lastly, our research program has extensive skill in animal surgeries and physiological assessment of metabolism, and our laboratory is well versed in assays specific to proteoglycans and analyses of ECM proteins including immunofluorescence, electron, and standard microscopy.


 

Dr. Peter Hoyt

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Director, Array and Bioinformatics Core Facility
Oklahoma State University 

405-744-6206

Research Interests:

Recent work with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has resulted in the publication of three new MRSA genomes. By comparative genomics, we have identified novel intra-organism and inter-organism gene movement of virulence factors in these strains. Other interests include identifying control of cell determination events during differentiation of pluripotent hematopoietic) and omnipotent (embryonic) mouse stem cells. Genes and miRNA involved in determination are being studied simultaneously on microarrays using a novel pulsed-induction method. Research also includes identifying metabolic effects of low dose (<10cGY) ionizing radiation in skin of different inbred mouse strains. Strains show remarkable variability in genome-wide transcription affecting humoral immunity, cell cycling, apoptosis and the intracellular signaling cascade.


 

Dr. Janeen Salak-Johnson

Associate Professor

Temple Grandin Professorship

Department of Animal and Food Sciences

 

Research Interests:

Her research program uses an integrative biological whole-animal approach by combining facets of the behavioral, physiological, and immunological sciences to better understand these complex relationships that ultimately affect animal health and well-being of food animals. Our research program encompasses both basic and translational sciences (a.k.a. applied science) to achieve their research goals successfully. Her current research focus is on maternal-fetal interactions on immune status and behavior of pigs and the nutritional modulation of the sow and piglets immune and stress responsiveness, with the ultimate goal to optimize host immunity through maternal-modulation of the progeny using dietary strategies to modulate the gut microbiota to enhance immune status in sows and progeny, while optimizing health and well-being.


 

Dr. Gerwald Koehler
Associate Professor of Microbiology
Department of Biochemistry & Microbiology
Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences

E-413, Forensic Sciences and BIomedical Research Bldg

1111 West 17th Street, Tulsa, OK 74107-1898
918-561-8302

 

Research Interests: 

Dr. Koehler’s research group studies the molecular pathogenesis of fungal infections and the role of probiotics and the gut microbiota in health and disease. Current research projects focus on the integration of gut microbes in the gut-brain axis and the potential of probiotics to attenuate the toxicity of ingested heavy metals.


 

Dr. Jing Liu, MD, Ph.D

Adjunct Associate Professor

Physiological Sciences

College of Veterinary Medicine

Oklahoma State University

Senior Toxicologist

Sarepta Therapeutics

Cambridge, MA

 

Research Interests:

Research interests include the neurochemical and neurobehavioral effects of xenobiotics, and safety evaluation of developmental therapeutics for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We are interested in exogenous and endogenous factors that modulate the neurotoxicological effects of pesticides and other neurotoxicants.


 

Dr. Lin Liu

Regents Professor of Physiological Sciences

Lundberg Kienlen Endowed Chair in Biomedical Research

Director, Oklahoma Center for Respiratory and Infectious Diseases

College of Veterinary Medicine

Oklahoma State University

210 McElroy Hall

Stillwater, OK 74078

405-744-4526

 

Research Interests:

Lung injury and diseases including viral and bacterial infections; adult stem cell-based therapy. Host factors and influenza virus and bacterial infections; stem cell-based therapy; lung development, injury and repair; microRNAs; and pulmonary diseases COPD, IPF, ARDS and BPD).


 

Dr. Edralin Lucas, Ph.D

Professor of Nutritional Sciences

Jim and Lynne Williams Professor

Department of Nutritional Sciences

422 Human Sciences

405-744-3132

 

Research Interests: 

Interests include obesity, dyslipidemia, nutritional biochemistry, clinical chemistry, analytical methods, cardiovascular and skeletal health, and functional food


 

Dr. Jerry R. Malayer, Ph.D

Professor and Associate Dean for Research & Graduate Education

College of Veterinary Medicine

Oklahoma State University

222 McElroy Hall

405-744-8485

 

Research Interests:

Study on the action of steroid hormones and their receptors to regulate and control gene expression. Environmental toxicants that act as endocrine disruptors have multiple impacts in development and growth through dysregulation of steroid-driven processes.


 

Dr. Lara Maxwell, DVM, PhD, DACVCP

Professor

Department of Physiological Sciences
College of Veterinary Medicine

264 McElroy Hall
Stillwater, OK 74078
405-744-8092

Research Interests:

I work on disparate topics, ranging from anticancer to antiviral drugs. However, these diverse lines of inquiry do fit within the unifying theme of my research: improving patient outcomes through pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling. At its simplest, pharmacodynamic data reveal the actions of a xenobiotic on a pharmacological target, such as a receptor or a pathogen. The field of pharmacokinetics is closely related to xenobiotic disposition, but provides a mathematical description of the time course of xenobiotic movement through the body. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling are most powerful when combined, as their union increases the odds of successfully predicting the actions of a xenobiotic as a function of both concentration and time. I use classical compartmental or noncompartmental, physiologically based, and population pharmacokinetic modeling. I agree with the axiom that “the dose makes the poison,” so enjoy both pharmacological and toxicological applications of xenobiotic modeling.


 

Dr. Karen McBee

Professor Emerita & Curator of Vertebrates

Department of Zoology 

Oklahoma State University

405-744-9680

 

Research Interests:

My research interests focus on the role that environmental stressors toxicants play in altering the genetic structure of populations, primarily in mammals and reptiles. We investigate relationships among exposure to environmental contaminants, induction of genetic damage in wildlife species, and long-term population demographic effects. I am also interested in approaches to use collections-based data and vouchered specimens to investigate impacts of environmental stressors on wildlife populations.


 

Dr. Scott McMurry

Regents Professor

Department of Integrative Biology

Oklahoma State University

405-744-5650

 

Research Interests:

My research interests center on how stressors in the environment influence wildlife. I view stressors broadly to include environmental contaminants, habitat alteration, climate, and others. Most of my projects include both a field and laboratory component. Over the past several years I have been fortunate enough to work with a variety of wildlife species in numerous terrestrial and aquatic systems throughout North America and Central America. Recently, the bulk of my work has focused on the influence of anthropogenic stressors (pollutants and sediments) on amphibians in playa wetlands, particularly how agricultural activities effect amphibian community composition, amphibian immunity, exposure to chemicals, and chemical effects on behavior. This work is in collaboration with other members of the department, and we continue with many of these studies at sites ranging from Texas to Nebraska.


 

Dr. Matteo Minghetti

Associate Professor 
Department of Integrative Biology

Oklahoma State University

411 Life Sciences West

405-744-3848

 

Research Interests:

Metal homeostasis, Nanotoxicology, Fish Physiology, Cell Biology, Molecular Ecotoxicology

 

Specific Interests:

Interested in the role of metals in biology and toxicology. Essential metals like iron, zinc and copper are required by all organisms to thrive. However, the same properties that make these metals necessary for life also make them extremely toxic. Therefore, organisms have evolved systems to handle metals thus avoiding dangerous and wasteful nonspecific interactions. Several proteins are involved in the tight regulation of intracellular metal concentration and distribution that is defined as metal homeostasis. The study of this sophisticated machinery at the molecular level will ultimately help us understand how organisms acclimate and adapt to multiple environmental stressors including metals. This research uses fish and in vitro models of epithelial barriers (i.e. fish gill and gut). Methods applied span from analytical chemistry to molecular biology and cellular imaging.


 

Dr. Kenneth J. Olivier Jr, PhD

Adjunct Assistant Professor

Department of Physiological Sciences

Drug Development Consultant at Oliver Consulting

Cambridge, MA

 

Research Interests:

Safety and efficacy of therapies in oncology, neurology, immunology, and cardiology. Engineering change in biopharma by optimizing collaborations between researchers, clinicians, professionals, and engineers in a multidisciplinary, team-based environment to promote a single vision, building cures for patients with unmet need.


 

Dr. Carey Pope

Regents Professor and Sitlington Chair in Toxicology

College of Veterinary Medicine

Director, Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program

170 McElroy Hall

405-744-6257

 

Research Interests:

Research in the Neurotoxicology Laboratory at OSU involves biochemical, neurobehavioral and analytical chemistry approaches to understand the effects of xenobiotics on neurological function. Current areas of interest include the role of endocannabinoids and other non-cholinergic mechanisms in the expression of neurotoxicity, long-term behavioral effects following acute intoxications, and the pharmacology and toxicology of countermeasures for organophosphate toxicity.


 

Dr. Josh Ramsey

Professor of Chemical Engineering
Oklahoma State University

423 Engineering North
Stillwater, OK 74078-5021
405-744-5280


Research Interests:

Dr. Ramsey's lab focuses on designing nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery. Special emphasis is placed upon designing carriers that avoid immune inactivation, target specific cells, and transport the drug or gene into the target cell.


 

Dr. Ashish Ranjan

Professor and Kerr Chair
Department of Physiological Sciences

Director, Institute for Translational and Emerging Research in Advanced Comparative Therapy

Oklahoma State University

169 McElroy Hall
Stillwater, OK 74078 
405-744-6292

 

Research Interests:

The arsenal of nanomaterials keeps expanding but their long-term effects on animal and human health remain largely unknown. Our laboratory is interested in understanding the chronic effects of potential nanoparticle drug delivery systems in clinically relevant animal models to facilitate clinical translation.


 

Dr. Jerry Ritchey
Professor and Head 

Veterinary Pathobiology
College of Veterinary Medicine

250 McElroy Hall

Stillwater, OK 74078

405-744-8219

 

Research Interests:

Immunology, cytokine biology, infectious diseases, pathology of the heart and central nervous system.


 

Dr. Brenda Smith

Regents Professor

John and Sue Taylor Professor

Associate Dean of Graduate College
Department of Nutritional Sciences, OSU

 

Research Interests:

Dr. Smith's research is focused on diet and osteoimmunology.  In particular, she is interested in understanding how components including xenobiotics within the diet affect the immune response, especially gut mucosal immunity, which in turn alters distal organ systems such as the skeleton.


 

Dr. Loren M. Smith

Regents Professor and Department Head
Department of Integrative Biology

Oklahoma State University

501 Life Sciences West

Stillwater, OK 74078
405-744-5555

Research Interests:

Research focuses on various aspects of wetland ecology and ecosystem structure and function. Most of my studies examine wetland ecosystems in relation to (1) biota requirements (e.g., migratory birds, plants, and amphibians), (2) ecosystem services, and (3) stressors.


 

Dr. Sundar V. Madihally

Professor, BP Faculty Fellow in Chemical Engineering, and ABET Coordinator

 

ACADEMIC BACKGROUND

Research Fellow, Surgical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2001

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, 1998

M. S.,  Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, 1996

B. S.,  Chemical Engineering, Bangalore University, 1992

 

Research Interests:

My research interests are in tissue regeneration using stem cells, developing approaches (oral, or transdermal) for delivering therapies, and devices for biomedical applications. Relevant to toxicology, we are evaluating the possibility of developing synthetic liver using cutting edge bioprinting technology.  We want to print cells in precise locations mimicking liver so that synthetic liver could be used to test toxicity in vitro. We are also interesting in novel technologies to deliver safe levels of therapeutic agents. We focus on developing strategies to deliver drugs by transdermal, or oral approaches.  We also use nanoparticles and fibers to delivery various therapeutic agents.


 

Dr. Tamara L. Mix

Associate Professor and Department Head
Department of Sociology

Laurence L. & Georgia Ina Dresser Professor
431 Social Sciences and Humanities

405-744-6125

 

 

Research interests:

Dr. Mix’s research interests include environmental justice, race, class and gender inequality, and social movements. She has conducted fieldwork in communities experiencing a wide range of environmental challenges linked to environmental risks, including work with community contamination and environmental illness in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, predator control and regional resilience in Alaska, and community dimensions of natural resource extraction and production in Oklahoma. Current projects consider environmental justice and inequality related to water and energy resources and food justice, food security and local food production networks impacting underserved communities.


 

Dr. Jarrad Wagner, Ph.D.

Director and Associate Professor
OSU Center for Health Sciences
OSU Forensic Toxicology and Trace Laboratory
Center for Improvised Explosives Research and Training
School of Forensic Sciences
Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences

Room 143-G

918-561-8247

 

http://toxlab.okstate.edu

http://impex.okstate.edu

http://forensicsciences.okstate.edu

 

Research Interests:  

Analytical method development and validation in forensic toxicology and trace chemistry. Analytical method development and validation in clinical toxicology applications. Working in conjunction with the OSU Center for Improvised Explosives Research and Training IMPEX), also located at OSU-CHS.


 

Dr. David R. Wallace 

Professor of Pharmacology

Co-Director, Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program

Chair, Biomedical Science Graduate Committee
Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences 

1111 West 17th Street 
Tulsa, OK  74107-1898          
918-561-1407

 

Research Interests:

Dr. Wallace’s research focuses on environmental toxicants (heavy metals and pesticides) and their role in the development of cancer. To accomplish these goals, the laboratory uses a variety of cellular, pharmacological, chemical and analytical techniques the assess the cellular damage resulting from exposure to these toxic agents. Current studies are examining the effects low-level (subtoxic) exposure to cadmium, nickel, glyphosate and atrazine as well as the toxicity of different toxicant mixture combinations in the pancreas. These studies have implications in long-term hormonal changes such as the development of Type II diabetes, obesity and eventual increased risk for cancer formation.

 

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